Learn more about funding agencies and their push toward open data in the Funders' Public Access (Open) Policies Guide.
"Science is based on building on, reusing and openly criticising the published body of scientific knowledge. For science to effectively function, and for society to reap the full benefits from scientific endeavours, it is crucial that science data be made open."
Panton Principles: Principles for Open Data in Science (2010) (emphasis added).
Purdue University Libraries has a current list of data repositories, searchable by keyword or by browsing. The Open Access Directory and University of Minnesota Libraries also have lists of data repositories available.
See below for a handful of discipline-specific data repositories to view as examples of the range of functionality of the interfaces:
The U.S. Federal Government's Office of Management and Budget Circular A-110 (36.d.2.i Property Standards; Intangible property; definition) states:
Research data is defined as the recorded factual material commonly accepted in the scientific community as necessary to validate research findings, but not any of the following: preliminary analyses, drafts of scientific papers, plans for future research, peer reviews, or communications with colleagues. This "recorded" material excludes physical objects (e.g., laboratory samples). Research data also do not include:
Final Research Data is recorded factual material commonly accepted in the scientific community as necessary to document and support research findings. This does not mean summary statistics or tables; rather, it means the data on which summary statistics and tables are based. For the purposes of this policy, final research data do not include laboratory notebooks, partial datasets, preliminary analyses, drafts of scientific papers, plans for future research, peer review reports, communications with colleagues, or physical objects, such as gels or laboratory specimens. NIH has separate guidance on the sharing of research resources, which can be found at NIHGPS.
NSF expects significant findings from research and education activities it supports to be promptly submitted for publication, with authorship that accurately reflects the contributions of those involved. It expects investigators to share with other researchers, at no more than incremental cost and within a reasonable time, the data, samples, physical collections and other supporting materials created or gathered in the course of the work. It also encourages grantees to share software and inventions or otherwise act to make the innovations they embody widely useful and usable.