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APA Style: Guide


Based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.).
Location: Hamilton Main Reference, BF76.7 .P83 2010

This is a guide to the most frequently used entries.

PLEASE NOTE: Examples are single-spaced, based on a typeset published format.
In a manuscript, all references are to be double-spaced. Please consult page 180
of the Publication Manual AND your department for style requirements.

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Call the main reference desk

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Type of Entry

Reference List Reference Citation in Text

Book – 1 or 2 Authors

Mitchell, T. R., & Larson, J.R., Jr. (1987). People in organizations: An introduction to organizational behavior
     (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

(Mitchell & Larson, 1987)

Book – 3 to 6 Authors

Pratkanis, A. R., Brecker, S. J., & Greenwald, A. G. (1989). Attitude structure and function. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

(Pratkanis, Breckler, & Greenwald, 1989) 1st citation

(Pratkanis et al., 1989)
subsequent citations

Edited Book

Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (1991). Children of color: Psychological interventions with minority youth.
     San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

(Gibbs & Huang, 1991)

Chapter from Book

Massaro, D. (1992). Broadcasting the domain of the fuzzy logical model of perception. In H. L. Pick, Jr., P. van den Broek,
     & D. C. Knill (Eds.), Cognition: Conceptual and methodological issues (pp. 51–84). Washington, DC: American
     Psychological Association.

(Massaro, 1992)

Journal Article –
2 Authors

(pagination by issue)

Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology
     Journal: Practice and Research, 45
(2), 10–36.

(Klimoski & Palmer, 1993)

Journal Article –
3 to 6 Authors

(continuous pagination)

Kendall, P. C., Stark, K. D., & Adam, T. (1990). Cognitive deficit or cognitive distortion of childhood depression. Journal
     of Abnormal Psychology, 18, 255–270.

(Kendall, Stark, & Adam, 1990)
1st citation

(Kendall et al., 1990)
subsequent citations

Journal Article –
Online with DOI assigned

Bhushan, G. V. (2007). Comparison of parenting stress in different developmental disabilities. Journal of Developmental
     & Physical Disabilities, 19, 417–425. doi:10.1007/s10882-007-9060-x

(Bhushan, 2007)

Journal Article – Online
with no DOI assigned

Hopcroft, R. (2009). Gender inequality in interaction -- An evolutionary account. Social Forces, 87(4), 1845–1872.
     Retrieved from

(Hopcroft, 2009)

Newspaper Article –
No author - Online

New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July 15). The Washington Post. Retrieved

(“New Drug,” 1993)

Magazine Article

Posner, M. I. (1993, October 29). Seeing the mind. Science, 262, 673–674.

(Posner, 1993)

Encyclopedia Article

Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501–508). Chicago, IL:
     Encyclopedia Britannica.

(Bergmann, 1993)

ERIC Document

Sai, M., & Hsu, J. (2007). “Multiple intelligence literature circles: A JFL and and EFL experience. Retrieved from ERIC
     database. (ED495304)

(Sai & Hsu, 2007)

Personal Communication

Cite personal communications in text only. Do NOT include them in the REFERENCES CITED.

See Publication Manual pp. 179.

(V. K. Bilten, personal
communication, September 28,

Audiovisual Media

Formats vary for citing audiovisual media. Consult pp. 209-210 of the Publication Manual for samples of citation format.


Electronic Sources

Formats vary for citing materials published electronically. Consult APA Style Guide to Electronic References. HMLTN REF BF76.8 .A63 2007


See also:

Learning APA Style (American Psychological Association)