In Hawai`i, National School Lunch Program data is available from DOE. However, in other states, data may be available from a different agency. For example, in Nevada, the Department of Agriculture publishes NSLP data for Nevada schools.
Public universities usually have an institutional research office that publishes reports about enrollment, demographics, degrees completed, etc. The Common Data Set is a set of standard data used across educational institutions for reporting purposes. Universities also conduct surveys of students and alumni, and the survey results are usually posted on the institutional research site.
IPEDS, the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, aggregates data from colleges and universities that receive federal funds.