Citing the work that supports your research is both an ethical issue and a legal issue.
The ethics of citing is based on the scholarly tradition of giving credit for information and ideas that are not one's own. Science has a long tradition of acknowledging priority through citations. You have the ethical responsibility to cite all works that were used to support your research, to give credit to the earlier work and to provide a clear path for those who follow in your footsteps.
As so eloquently expressed by Isaac Newton in a letter to Robert Hooke in 1675,1
If I have seen further it is by standing on ye sholders of Giants.
The legal issues of citing one's sources are codified in Copyrights, Title 17 of the U.S. Code, which describes the legal protections of authors' and creators' intellectual property rights.
1. Merton RK. On the shoulders of giants: a Shandean postscript. New York: The Free Press, 2006. p. 31.
Plagiarism is defined as:
"The action or practice of taking someone else's work, idea, etc., and passing it off as one's own; literary theft."
Oxford English dictionary [Internet]. 3rd ed.; online version. [Oxford]: Oxford University Press, 2006. Plagiarism;[cited 2011 Oct 11]:[about 2 screens]. Available from: http://oed.com
Examples of Citations
Based on rules from: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). (2020). American Psychological Association. Available at Hamilton Library Reference BF76.7 .P83 2020.
Citing a Journal Article
Safiri, S., & Ayubi, E. (2018). Prospective evaluation of risk factors and clinical influence of carbapenem resistance in children with gram-negative bacteria infection: Methodologic issues. AJIC: American Journal of Infection Control, 46(3), 361–361. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2017.11.004
Zar, J. H. (1999). Biostatistical analysis (4th ed.). Prentice Hall. (Add full DOI link if available)
Citing a Chapter in a Book
Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp.17-43). Guilford Press.
Citing a Dissertation
Lew, M. M. (2017). Hydroxyl, hydroperoxyl, and organic peroxy radical chemistry in forested areas: Measurements, modeling and implications for atmospheric chemistry. (Publication No. 10637837) [Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
Note: The 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual, was released in October 2019.
Zotero, a FireFox plugin, is a useful tool to help you manage your citations
Endnote Basic is an application that imports citations from your searches in web databases and helps you organize your references. It works with Microsoft Word helping you create in-text citations, footnotes, and bibliographies. See the EndNote Basic Guide for more information. A paid version of Endnote is available as well. See the EndNote Guide for more information.