"The colonial carceral and prison politics in Hawaii", RaeDeen Keahiolalo-Karasuda. Ph.D., University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2008
Most attention given to the disproportionate incarceration of Kanaka Maoli concentrates on individual criminality. Rather than examine Hawaiians as criminal subjects, I analyze the carceral as a site of colonial conquest and neocolonial subjugation. Through historical and representational texts, I argue that the legacy of carceral violence against Kanaka Maoli must be contextualized as a strategy of land theft and political usurpation. Beginning with the public hanging of the grandfather of King Kalakaua and Queen Lili'uokalani under the first written constitution of 1840, I mark the start of a codified Western legal system that subjugated Kanaka Maoli through cruel and unusual forms of punishment. I follow this discussion with an analysis of nineteenth century opium discourses used to advance the Bayonet Constitution and illegal overthrow of 1893.