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Chinese Studies -- Sun Yat-sen, Hawaii and the Chinese Revolution: Home

To celebrate Dr. Sun Yat-sen's 153th birthday

INTRODUCTION

Road to the Republic

This bibliography was compiled for an exhibit on China’s radical change from monarchy to the republic. The prominent figure Sun Yat-sen (孫中山) and the most significant event, the Chinese Revolution of 1911 (辛亥革命), were highlighted to showcase China's road to the republic.


Sun Yat-sen is a preeminent leader of Chinese Revolution, a revolutionary movement that succeeded in overthrowing the Manchu monarchy and established the Republic of China. Books on Sun’s life and political career were carefully reviewed and selected with a focus on his supporters and revolutionary activities in Hawaii, as well as his political ideology. Materials on Sun’s wife, Soong Ching Ling (宋慶齡), often referred to as Madame Sun, was included as she was a strong supporter of Sun’s political principles and played a prominent role in China's politics prior to and after 1949.


As to the decisive uprising occurred in the city of Wuchang (
武昌) on October 10, 1911, it is important for readers to understand the social-economical and political conditions of China at that time. Several general works on late Qing China were selected. And works on famous revolutionaries and revolution organizations, such as the United League (同盟會) were included for the same reason. To demonstrate the complexity of the revolution, this bibliography was concluded with materials on the political order and dynamics in the early years of the Republic of China.  

SUN YAT-SEN 孫中山

Sun, Yat-Sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925), names in Chinese孫文, 孫中山, 孫逸仙, the preeminent leader of Chinese Revolution of 1911 (辛亥革命) and the first president of the Republic of China.  Because of Sun’s indelible achievements to the country, he was highly revered by both the Nationalist Party and the Communist Party.

 

Bibliography

 

Bruce, R. Sun Yat-sen. The Clarendon Biographies. London: Oxford U.P., 1969. (Asia DS777 .B75)

Chang, Toy Len., Lum, Arlene, Luke, Terry K. W, Tanaka, Gwen Yee, Hawaii National Bank, and East-West Center. Sailing for the Sun : The Chinese in Hawaii, 1789-1989. Honolulu, Hawaii: Three Heroes, 1988. (Asia Locked Press DU624.7.C5 S25 1988)

Gordon, David B. Sun Yatsen: Seeking a Newer China. Library of World Biography. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2010. (Asia DS777 .G67 2010)

Guo Fu Ji Nian Guan. Chronology of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the Founding Father of the Republic of China. Taipei: Dr. Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, 1973. (Asia DS777.A595 K86 1973)

Ni, Junming, and Guangdong Sheng Zhongshan Tu Shu Guan. Xin Hai Ge Ming Zai Guangdong: 1911 = The Revolution of 1911 in Guangdong. Guangzhou: Guangdong Jiao Yu Chu Ban She, 2001. 倪俊明廣東省中山圖書館辛亥革命在廣東:1911. 廣州廣東教育出版社, 2001. (East Folio DS773.55.K8 N5 2001)

Li, Ping. Sun Zhongshan = Sun Yat-sen. Beijing: Jiu Zhou Chu Ban She, 2006. 李平孫中山.北京九州出版社, 2006. (East Folio DS777 .S8695 2006)

Linebarger, Paul Myron. Sun Yat Sen and the Chinese Republic. New York: AMS Press, 1969. (Asia DS777 .L5 1969)

Schiffrin, Harold Z. Sun Yat-sen and the Origins of the Chinese Revolution. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968. (Hamilton DS777 .S32)

Sun, Lily Sui-fong. Guo Fu Sun Zhongshan Xian Sheng Ji Nian Ji : Yi Ge Kai Chuang Shi Ji Qi Ji De Wei Ren= Album in memory of Dr. Sun Yat-sen : a great man and epoch-maker. Xianggang: Guo ji Zhonghua wen hua yi shu xie hui, 2013. 孫穗芳國父孫中山先生紀念集一個開創世紀奇蹟的偉人香港國際中華文化藝術協會, 2013. (East DS777 .G864 2010)

Zeng, Yishi, and Guo Fu Ji Nian Guan, Issuing Body. Dr. Sun Yat-sen = Guo Fu. Taibei: National Dr. Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, 2003. 曽一士,國父紀念館.國父.台北:國立國父紀念館, 2003. (Asia Locked Press DS777 .D62 2003)

Zhongguo ren min zheng zhi xie shang hui yi quan guo wei yuan hui wen shi he xue xi wei yuan hui, and Zhongguo guo jia bo wu guan, ed. Sun Zhongshan Xian Sheng Hua Ce. Beijing: Zhongguo Wen Shi Chu Ban She. 2006. 中國人民政治協商會議全國委員會文史和學習委員會中國國家博物館編孫中山先生畫冊北京中國文史出版社, 2006. (Asia Locked Press DS777 .S863 2006) 

SUN YAT-SEN AND HAWAII

Hawaii and its people played an important role in the life of Sun. Hawaii was known as Sun’s second home for he spent his teenage years here. He had family and many friends in these islands, who wholeheartedly supported his revolutionary activities financially and politically. In many instances, they risked their lives to support the Chinese revolution. Sun once said: “Hua qiao (華僑, overseas Chinese) is the mother of the revolution.” The Chinese in Hawaii are well worthy of such an honor.

 

Hawaii was known as the cradle of the Chinese revolution because Sun founded the first revolutionary organization, the Xing Zhong hui (興中會, Revive China Society) in Honolulu on November 24 1894. In Hawaii, Sun and a little more than a hundred Chinese first vowed to bring down the Manchus. This little spark ignited into a prairie fire that burned down the decaying Manchu regime. The Revive China Society later developed into a strong political party called the Tong meng hui (同盟會, United League), which was reorganized in 1912 to become the Guo min dang (國民黨, Nationalist Party).

 

Bibliography

Chang, Toy Len., Lum, Arlene, Luke, Terry K. W, Tanaka, Gwen Yee, Hawaii National Bank, and East-West Center. Sailing for the Sun: The Chinese in Hawaii, 1789-1989. Honolulu, Hawaii: Three Heroes, 1988. (Hamilton Folio DU624.7.C5 S34 1988)

Hao, Ping. Sun Yat-sen and America = Sun Zhong Shan Ge Ming Yu Mei Guo. Beijing: Wan Yu Jiao Xue Yu Yan Jiu Chu Ban She. 2012. 郝平孫中山革命與美國北京:外語教學與研究出版社, 2012. (Asia DS777.A597 H36z 2012)

Lum, Yansheng Ma, and Lum, Raymond Mun Kong. Sun Yat-sen in Hawaii: Activities and Supporters. Honolulu: Hawaii Chinese History Center and Dr. Sun Yat-sen Hawaii Foundation, 1999. (Hamilton DS777 .L86 1999)

Soong, Irma Tam. Christian Leaders of the Hsing Chung Hui. Publication Not Identified: Publisher Not Identified], 1991. (Asia DU624.7.C5 S6593 1991)

Soong, Irma Tam. Dr. Sun Yat Sen's Christian schooling in Hawaii, 1879-1883. [Honolulu, Hawaii : Publisher not identified, 1988] (Hawaiian DS777 .S66 1988)

Soong, Irma Tam., Lin, Weitong, and Hawaii Chinese History Center. Five Hsing Chung Hui Men of Valor. Honolulu] : [Taipei]: Hawaii Chinese History Center ; Federation of Overseas Chinese Associations, 1989. (Hawaiian DU624.7.C5 S66 1989)

Zanella, William M., Kwok, D. W. Y., Pang, Loretta O. Q, Castle, Alfred L. Sun Yat-Sen's Schooling in Hawaii, Tsui, Francis, and Hawaii Committee for the Humanities. Sun Yat-Sen, the Man and the Myth: A Humanities Guide. Honolulu: Hawaii Committee for the Humanities, 1991. (Hawaiian DS777 .S865 1991)

THREE PRINCIPLES OF THE PEOPLE 三民主義

The political philosophy of Sun Yat-sen, championing nationalism  民族主義, democracy 民權主義, and the people’s livelihood 民生主義. Sun’s political philosophy was influenced by both Western democratic thinkers and Chinese Confucian ideology. 

Bibliography

Brandt, IAkov IAkovlevich. Sun-IAt-Sen. Gomindanovskaia partiia. Tian’tszin: Izd-vo Vozrozhdenie Azii, 1920s. (Northeast Asia Collection <In process>)

Chang, Hsu-Hsin., and Gordon, Leonard H. D. All under Heaven- : Sun Yat-sen and His Revolutionary Thought. Studies in Economic, Social, and Political Change, the Republic of China. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 1991. (Hamilton DS777 .A567 C416 1991)

Gregor, A. James, Yang, Richard H, and Guo Fu Ji Nian Guan. The Thought of Sun Yat-sen, and Revolution in the Twenty First Century. Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.: Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall, 1991. (Asia DS777 .G74 1991)

Lorenzo, David J. Conceptions of Chinese Democracy : Reading Sun Yat-Sen, Chiang Kai-Shek and Chiang Ching-Kuo. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013. (Asia Reference JQ1516 .L67 2013)

Nihon Sonbun Kenkyūkai, Kōbe Kakyō Kajin Kenkyūkai, and "Sonbun to Kakyō" Sonbun Seitan 130 Shūnen Kinen Kokusai Shimpojūmu. Sonbun to Kakyō : Sonbun Seitan 130 Shūnen Kinen Kokusai Gakujutsu Tōronkai Ronbunshū. Son Chūzan Kinenkai Kenkyū Sōsho ; 3. Tōkyō: Kyūko Shoin, 1999. 日本孫文研究会, 神戶華僑 華人研究会編. 孫文と華僑: 孫文生誕 130 周年記念国際学術討論会論文集. (East DS732 .S66 1999)

Rodes, Jean. La Chine nouvelle. Paris: F. Alcan, 1910. (Northeast Asia Collection <In process>)

Sun, Yat-sen, and Chiang, Kai-shek. San Min Chu I = The Three Principles of the People. 2nd ed. Taipei, Taiwan, ROC: Shaw Yu-ming: Govt. Information Office, 1990. (Asia DS777 .A55 1990)

Sun, Yat-sen, and Chiang, Kai-shek. San Min Zhu Yi: Zeng Lu Min Sheng Zhu Yi Yu Le Liang Pian Bu Shu. Taibei: Zhong Yang Wen Wu Gong Ying She, 1985. 孫文. 三民主義: 增錄 民生主義育樂兩篇 補述. 臺北市: 中央文物供應社, 1985. (East DS777 .A53 1985)

Sun, Yat-sen. Osnovnyia idei San-min: tri nachala narodprovstva.  Kharbin: Tip. "Gun-bao," 1929.  [Title translation:  Basic ideas of San-min:  three principles of the people.] (Northeast Asia Collection <In process>)

Sun, Yat-sen, Wei, Julie Lee, Myers, Ramon Hawley, and Gillin, Donald G. Prescriptions for Saving China: Selected Writings of Sun Yat-sen. Studies in Economic, Social, and Political Change, the Republic of China. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 1994. (Asia DS777 .A25 1994)

Tan, Yuquan. Sun Wen Si Xiang Ping Lun. Chu Ban.. ed. Wen Shi Zhe Da Xi ; 166. Taibei Shi: Wen Jin Chu Ban She, 2002. 譚宇權. 孫文思想評論. 台北市 : 文津出版社, 2002. (East DS777 .T3698 2002)

Wells, Audrey. The Political Thought of Sun Yat-sen: Development and Impact. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire ; New York: Palgrave, 2001. (Asia DS777 .W45 2001)

SOONG CHING LING 宋慶齡

Soong, Ching-ling (27 January 1893 – 29 May 1981), distinguished lady of modern China, prominent social activist, and wife of Sun Yat-Sen, also known as Madame Sun. Together with her siblings of the Soong family, she played a prominent role in China's politics prior to and after 1949.  

 

Born into a wealthy business man and missionary family in Shanghai, Soong first graduated from Mctyeire School for Girls in Shanghai, then Wesleyan College in Macon, Georgia. In 1914, Soong became Sun Yat-sen's English secretary. She fell in love with Sun and married him in Tokyo in 1915. After Sun's death in 1925, Soong was elected as a member of the Central Executive Committee of the Nationalist Party. Soong insisted on Sun’s principles and opposed Chiang Kai-shek’s purge of Communists. During Sino-Japanese war, she stood for the United Front against the Japanese and founded the China Defense League in 1939, which later became the China Welfare Institute. She was Vice President of the People’s Republic of China, 1954-1959 and 1975-1981. Not active in politics, she devoted herself into various welfare activities related to children and women. Soong was the only woman who was granted the title of “Honorary President of the People's Republic of China.”

 

Bibliography

Chang, Jung, and Halliday, Jon. Mme Sun Yat-Sen (Soong Ching-ling). Harmondsworth; New York: Penguin Books, 1986. (Asia DS777.15.S8 C5 1986)

Epstein, Israel. Woman in World History: Life and times of Soong Ching Ling (Mme. Sun Yatsen). Beijing: New World Press. 1995. (Asia Locked Press DS778.S82 E68 1995)

Eunson, Roby., and Zhao, Yunxia. Song Shi San Jie Mei : Song Ailing, Song Qingling, Song Meiling. Di 1 Ban.. ed. Beijing: Shi Jie Zhi Shi Chu Ban She : Xin Hua Shu Dian Beijing Fa Xing Suo Fa Xing, 1984. (Asia Locked Press DS777 .487 .E85127 1984)

He, Dazhang, and Zhongguo Song Qingling Ji Jin Hui, Issuing Body. The Great and Glorious Life of Soong Ching Ling = Song Qingling Wei Da Guang Rong De Yi Sheng. Beijing: China Peace Publishing House, 2006. 中國宋慶齡基金會. 宋慶齡偉大光榮的一生. 北京: 中國和平出版社, 2006. (Asia Locked Press DS778.S82 G74 2006)

Liu, Dongping. Song Qingling Tu Zhuan, 1893-1981.Beijing: Zhongguo Qing Nian Chu Ban She, 2006. 劉東平. 宋慶齡圖傳, 1893-1981. 北京: 中國青年出版社, 2006. (East DS778.S82 L68 2006)

Spencer, Cornelia, and Wiese, Kurt. Three Sisters : The Story of the Soong Family of China. New York: John Day Company, 1939. (HamiltonPZ3.Y296 Th) 

Wu, Sylvia. Memories of Madame Sun. Santa Monica, Calif.: Dennis-Landman Publishers, 1982. (Asia DS778.S82 W8 1982)

 

CHINESE REVOLUTION of 1911 (XINHAI GEMING 辛亥革命)

Revolutionary movement that overthrew the Manchu monarchy and established the Republic of China. The decisive uprising occurred in the city of Wuchang (武昌) on 10 October 1911. Because the year 1911 was the year of Xinhai in the Chinese calendar, the 1911 Revolution is also called the Xinhai Revolution.

 

After China’s defeats by the Western powers sand Japan in the 19th century and the failures of all the different reform efforts, many Chinese turned their sights to a radical revolution. Early revolutionary organizations were merged into the Tong meng hui (同盟會 United League) in Japan in 1905, defining their revolutionary objectives as “expelling the Manchus, restoring China for the Chinese, establishing a republic, and equalizing land holdings.”

 

Between 1900 and 1911, Sun Yat-sen (孫中山) and other leaders organized ten uprisings in China, but all were suppressed by the Qing government. On 10 October 1911, the Wuchang uprising succeeded. Sun and other leaders returned to China and established the Republic of China. Sun was elected provisional president by the provincial representatives on 25 December 1911.

 

The Qing court still controlled northern China, and the power was in the hands of the military leader of the Beiyang army, Yuan Shikai (袁世凱). Sun negotiated and reached a compromise with Yuan. Yuan promised to support the republic and force the emperor to abdicate; in return, Sun resigned the presidency and persuaded the provisional assembly to elect Yuan president.  On 12 February 1912, the last emperor’s mother signed the Act of Abdication on behalf of the Xuantong Emperor. With this act, the several-thousand-year-old monarchal system in China came to end.

 

Bibliography

Ding, Bo. Xin hai bai nian : shou cang Zhonghua Minguo : rang li shi ting ge yu fang cun xiao wu zhong. Xinbei Shi Xindian Qu : Li xu wen hua shi ye you xian gong si, 2011. 丁蘗. 辛亥百年 : 收藏中華民國: 讓歷史停格於方寸小物中新北市新店區 : 立緖文化事業有限公司, 2011. (East DS773.4.D56 2011)

Huang, Dashou., Niu, Xianzhong, Xin, Fachun, and Feng Yun Zhonghua Zhen Ben Bian Ji Wei Yuan Hui. Zhonghua Min Guo Taibei Shi: Xin Chen Chu Ban She, 1980. 黄大受鈕先鍾辛法春風雲中華珍本編輯委員會風雲中華珍本臺北新晨出版社,1980. (East Folio DS774 .F46 1980)

Lary, Diana. China's Republic. New Approaches to Asian History. Cambridge, UK ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. (Asia DS774.L285 2007)

Liu, Heung Shing, and University of Hong Kong. Journalism Media Studies Centre. China in Revolution: The Road to 1911. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press : in Collaboration with Journalism and Media Studies Centre, The University of Hong Kong, 2011. (Asia Folio DS773.4 .L58 2011)

Sun, Yat-sen. Zong li shou shu jian guo da gang. 總理手書建國大綱.  Publisher and place of publication unknown, 1980s? [Facimile reproduction]

Su, Hsi-wen. Kuo Fu Sun Chung-shan Hsien Sheng Hua Chuan = A Pictorial Biography of Dr. Sun Yat-sen. Hong Kong: The Cosmorama Pictorial, 1965. 蘇錫文. 國父孫中山先生畫傳香港中外文化事業有限公司, 1965. (East DS777 .S73)

Wang, Ying, and Luo, Changyan. Zhonghua Zhi Guang: Ji Nian Sun Zhongshan Xian Sheng Dan Chen 125 Zhou Nian. Nanjing : Xianggang: Yi Lin Chu Ban She ; Di Ping Xian Chu Ban She, 1991. 王英羅長炎中華之光紀念孫中山先生誕辰125週年南京譯林出版社香港地平綫出版社,1991. (East DS777 .C75 1991)

Zhang, Haipeng. Zhongguo Jin Dai Shi Gao Di Tu Ji. Pejing: Di Tu Chu Ban She, 1984. 張海鵬中國近代史稿地图集北京地圖出版社,1984. (East Reference-Library G2306.S1 C35 1984)

Xie, Wensun. Chinese Historiography on the Revolution of 1911: A Critical Survey and a Selected Bibliography. Hoover Institution Studies; 34. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, 1975. (Hamilton DS773 .H69)

Xu, Jianing., and Xu Zongmao Tu Wen Guan. Xin Hai Ge Ming Xian Chang Bao Dao: Xi Yang Hua Kan Xin Wen Wen Xian Xuan Ji = World Report on Hsinhai Revolution. Xin Hai Bai Nian Dian Cang Shi Hua. Taibei Shi: Da Kuai Wen Hua Chu Ban Gu Fen You Xian Gong Si, 2011. 徐家寧徐宗懋圖文館. 辛亥革命現場報導西洋畫刊新聞文獻選集台北市大塊文化出版股份有限公司, 2011. (East Folio DS773.4 .X559 2011)

Xue, Jundu, Huang, Xing, and Ji Nian Xin Hai Ge Ming Qi Shi Zhou Nian Xue Shu Tao Lun Hui. The Chinese Revolution of 1911: New Perspectives. Hongkong: Joint Pub. (HK), 1986. (Asia DS773.45 .C47 1986)

Yan, Qinghuang. The Role of the Overseas Chinese in the 1911 Revolution. Southeast Asia Research Paper Series; No. 3. Singapore: Chopmen Enterprises, 1978. (Asia DS595.2.C5 Y47)

Zhongguo Di Tu Chu Ban She, Xin Hai Ge Ming Wuchang Qi Yi Ji Nian Guan. Xin Hai Ge Ming Shi Di Tu Ji. Beijing: Zhongguo Di Tu Chu Ban, 1991.  中國地圖出版社辛亥革命武昌起義紀念館辛亥革命史地圖集北京中國地圖出版社, 1991. (East Reference G2306.S1 C586 1991)