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Public Health Research Guide: Organizing and Citing

Why Cite?

Citing the work that supports your research is both an ethical issue and a legal issue.

The ethics of citing is based on the scholarly tradition of giving credit for information and ideas that are not one's own. Science has a long tradition of acknowledging priority through citations. You have the ethical responsibility to cite all works that were used to support your research, to give credit to the earlier work and to provide a clear path for those who follow in your footsteps.

As so eloquently expressed by Isaac Newton in a letter to Robert Hooke in 1675 (Merton 1965),

If I have seen further it is by standing on ye sholders of Giants.

The legal issues of citing one's sources are codified in Copyrights, Title 17 of the U.S. Code, which describes the legal protections of authors' and creators' intellectual property rights.

[Merton, RK. (2006). On the shoulders of giants: a Shandean postscript. New York: The Free Press. p. 31]

What is Plagiarism?

Plagiarism is defined as:

"The action or practice of taking someone else's work, idea, etc., and passing it off as one's own; literary theft"

(OED Online 2006). [OED Online [Internet]. plagiarism, n. Oxford University Press. 2006. [cited 2007 Jul 30]. Available from: [http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50180576]

Endnote: Bibliographic Management Tool

Endnote is an application that imports citations from your searches in web databases and helps you organize your references. It works with Microsoft Word helping you create in-text citations, footnotes, and bibliographies.

See the Endnote Library Guide for more information.

A free web-based version of EndNote is also available. See the EndNote Basic Library Guide for more information.

Open Source Bibliographic Management Tools

Zotero, a FireFox plugin, allows you to import citations directly from web-based indexes and webpages. You can also store documents (pdfs of articles downloaded) in your Zotero folder, usually located on your hard drive. Zotero works with Word and OpenOffice to generate citations in your document. See the Zotero Library Guide for more information.

Mendeley extracts citation data from downloaded pdfs and other formats thus helping you manage your library of papers. You can export your citations from Mendeley as Endnote XML, then import into Endnote using the XML filter. To transfer the documents you've save in Mendeley, simply transfer the saved files in your Mendeley My Collection folder to the Endnote Data folder (into the pdf folder) --your citations with pdfs will then be imported. Mendeley works with OpenOffice and Word to create citations in your document.
See the Mendeley Library Guide for more information.

APA Citations

Examples of Citations

Based on rules from: VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.). (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Available at Hamilton Library Reference BF76.7 .P83 2010.

Citing a Journal Article
Blackburn, N., & Fenchel, T. (1999). Influence of bacteria, diffusion and shear on micro-scale nutrient patches, and implications for bacterial chemotaxis. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 189, 1-7.

Citing Books
Zar, J. H. (1999). Biostatistical analysis (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

Citing a Chapter in a Book
Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp.17-43). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Citing a Dissertation
Eve, T. M. (2001). Chemistry and chemical ecology of Indo-Pacific gorgonians (Doctoral dissertation). University of California, San Diego.


Additional Resources

Vancouver Style: Examples

The Vancouver style is also known as the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. The Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts refers authors to NLM's Citing Medicine to get more information and examples on recommended formats for various reference types.

Example citations based on rules from: Patrias K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling D, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007- [updated 2011 Sep 15; cited 2011 Oct 11]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine

Citing a Journal Article

Bell KP, Phillips C, Paquette DW, Offenbacher S, Wilder RS. Incorporating oral-systemic evidence into patient care: practice behaviors and barriers of North Carolina dental hygienists. J Dent Hyg. 2011 Spring;85(2):99-113.

Citing a Journal Article on the Internet

Rodda J, Walker Z, Carter J. Depression in older adults. BMJ [Internet]. 2011 Sep 28[cited 2012 Sep 12];383:d5219. Available from: http://www.bmj.com/content/343/bmj.d5219.full DOI: 10.1136/bmj.d5219

Citing Books

Mason J. Concepts in dental public health. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2005.

Citing a Chapter in a Book

Palleschi KM. Dental hygiene care plan and evaluation. In: Darby ML, Walsh MM, editors. Dental hygiene: theory and practice. 3rd ed. St. Louis: Saunders/Elsevier; 2010. p. 372-99.