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Public Health Research Guide: Organizing and Citing

Why Cite?

Citing the work that supports your research is both an ethical issue and a legal issue.

The ethics of citing is based on the scholarly tradition of giving credit for information and ideas that are not one's own. Science has a long tradition of acknowledging priority through citations. You have the ethical responsibility to cite all works that were used to support your research, to give credit to the earlier work and to provide a clear path for those who follow in your footsteps.

As so eloquently expressed by Isaac Newton in a letter to Robert Hooke in 1675 (Merton 1965),

If I have seen further it is by standing on ye sholders of Giants.

The legal issues of citing one's sources are codified in Copyrights, Title 17 of the U.S. Code, which describes the legal protections of authors' and creators' intellectual property rights.

[Merton, RK. (2006). On the shoulders of giants: a Shandean postscript. New York: The Free Press. p. 31]

What is Plagiarism?

Plagiarism is defined as:

"The action or practice of taking someone else's work, idea, etc., and passing it off as one's own; literary theft"

(OED Online 2006). [OED Online [Internet]. plagiarism, n. Oxford University Press. 2006. [cited 2007 Jul 30]. Available from: [http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50180576]

Endnote: Bibliographic Management Tool

Endnote is an application that imports citations from your searches in web databases and helps you organize your references. It works with Microsoft Word helping you create in-text citations, footnotes, and bibliographies.

See the Endnote Library Guide for more information.

A free web-based version of EndNote is also available. See the EndNote Basic Library Guide for more information.

Open Source Bibliographic Management Tools

Zotero, a FireFox plugin, allows you to import citations directly from web-based indexes and webpages. You can also store documents (pdfs of articles downloaded) in your Zotero folder, usually located on your hard drive. Zotero works with Word and OpenOffice to generate citations in your document. See the Zotero Library Guide for more information.

The American Psychological Association published the seventh edition of its style manual in late 2019. Information for the sixth and seventh editions are given below.

APA Citations, 6th Edition

Examples of Citations

Based on rules from: VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.). (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Available at Hamilton Library Reference BF76.7 .P83 2010.

Citing a Journal Article
Blackburn, N., & Fenchel, T. (1999). Influence of bacteria, diffusion and shear on micro-scale nutrient patches, and implications for bacterial chemotaxis. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 189, 1-7.

Citing Books
Zar, J. H. (1999). Biostatistical analysis (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

Citing a Chapter in a Book
Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp.17-43). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Citing a Dissertation
Eve, T. M. (2001). Chemistry and chemical ecology of Indo-Pacific gorgonians (Doctoral dissertation). University of California, San Diego.

Note: The 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual, was released in October 2019.


Additional Resources

APA Citations, 7th Edition

Examples of Citations

Based on rules from: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). (2020). American Psychological Association. Available at Hamilton Library Reference BF76.7 .P83 2020.

Citing a Journal Article
Safiri, S., & Ayubi, E. (2018). Prospective evaluation of risk factors and clinical influence of carbapenem resistance in children with gram-negative bacteria infection: Methodologic issues. AJIC: American Journal of Infection Control, 46(3), 361–361. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2017.11.004

Citing Books
Zar, J. H. (1999). Biostatistical analysis (4th ed.). Prentice Hall. (Add full DOI link if available)

Citing a Chapter in a Book
Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp.17-43). Guilford Press.

Citing a Dissertation
Lew, M. M. (2017). Hydroxyl, hydroperoxyl, and organic peroxy radical chemistry in forested areas: Measurements, modeling and implications for atmospheric chemistry. (Publication No. 10637837) [Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Note: The 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual, was released in October 2019.


Additional Resources

Vancouver Style: Examples

The Vancouver style is also known as the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. The Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts refers authors to NLM's Citing Medicine to get more information and examples on recommended formats for various reference types.

Example citations based on rules from: Patrias K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling D, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007- [updated 2011 Sep 15; cited 2011 Oct 11]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine

Citing a Journal Article

Bell KP, Phillips C, Paquette DW, Offenbacher S, Wilder RS. Incorporating oral-systemic evidence into patient care: practice behaviors and barriers of North Carolina dental hygienists. J Dent Hyg. 2011 Spring;85(2):99-113.

Citing a Journal Article on the Internet

Rodda J, Walker Z, Carter J. Depression in older adults. BMJ [Internet]. 2011 Sep 28[cited 2012 Sep 12];383:d5219. Available from: http://www.bmj.com/content/343/bmj.d5219.full DOI: 10.1136/bmj.d5219

Citing Books

Mason J. Concepts in dental public health. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2005.

Citing a Chapter in a Book

Palleschi KM. Dental hygiene care plan and evaluation. In: Darby ML, Walsh MM, editors. Dental hygiene: theory and practice. 3rd ed. St. Louis: Saunders/Elsevier; 2010. p. 372-99.