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Mathematics: Organizing and Citing

Using Bibliographic Management Tools to Organize

Open Source / Free Tools

Mathematics Writing Guides

Knuth, D.E., T. Larrabee, Paul M. Roberts (1989), Mathematical Writing, MAA, ISBN 978-0-88385-063-3
Call number: QA42 .K58 1989 1st floor Hamilton Addition

Higham, Nicholas J. (1998), Handbook of Writing for the Mathematical Sciences (second ed.), SIAM, ISBN 0-89871-420-6 .
Call number: QA42 .H54 1998 1st floor Hamilton Addition

Theses & Dissertations at UHM

Thesis & Dissertation, pages devoted to helping students complete their theses and dissertations, with guidance about style, citations, formatting, and copyright.

Citation Examples

Examples of how to cite the literature taken from: Council of Science Editors. Style Manual Committee.2006. Scientific style and format: the CSE manual for authors, editors, and publishers. 7th ed. Reston (VA): The Council.

Citing a Journal Article

Blackburn N, Fenchel T. 1999. Influence of bacteria, diffusion and shear on micro-scale nutrient patches, and implications for bacterial chemotaxis. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 189:1-7.

Citing Books

Zar JH. 1999. Biostatistical analysis. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River (NJ): Prentice Hall.

Citing a Chapter in a Book

Schroeder TA. c1998. Hurricanes. In: Juvik SP, Juvik JO, editors. Atlas of Hawaii. 3rd ed. Honolulu (HI): University of Hawaii Press. p. 74-75.

Citing a Dissertation

Eve TM. 2001. Chemistry and chemical ecology of Indo-Pacific gorgonians. PhD dissertation. San Diego (CA): University of California. 212 p.

Citing a Web Database

Matsuura, K. c2001. Rhinecanthus rectangulus (Block & Schneider, 1801). In: Froese, R and Pauly, D editors. FishBase [Internet]. [updated 2007 May, cited 2009 Jan 20]. Available from:

Why Cite?

Nānā i ke kumu

Citing the work that supports your research is both an ethical issue and a legal issue.

The ethics of citing is based on the scholarly tradition of giving credit for information and ideas that are not one's own. Science has a long tradition of acknowledging priority through citations. You have the ethical responsibility to cite all works that were used to support your research, to give credit to the earlier work and to provide a clear path for those who follow in your footsteps.

Or, to put it another way:

I ulu no ka lālā i ke kumu.
The branches grow because of the trunk.
Without our ancestors we would not be here.

An example of some legal aspects of citing can be found in Copyrights, Title 17 of the U.S. Code, which describes the legal protections of authors' and creators' intellectual property rights within U.S. law.

*Pukui MK. 1983. ʻŌlelo Noʻeau : Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press. [1261] p.137.

What is Plagiarism?

Plagiarism is defined as:

"The action or practice of taking someone else's work, idea, etc., and passing it off as one's own; literary theft"

"plagiarism, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, March 2015. Web. 21 May 2015.  Available from:

See the University of Hawaiʻi Student Conduct Code for more information.

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