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Zoology: Organizing & Citing

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Citation Styles

There are many different citation styles that are used for research papers. Ask your professor if there is a style that they prefer. Whichever style you choose, apply it consistently throughout your paper. The examples on this guide utilize the Name-Year style from The Council of Science Editors (CSE).

Citation Examples

Citation examples based on the References chapter from the 7th Edition of Scientific Style and Format (CSE 2006).

Citing a Journal Article (Print)

End Reference:
Haraway DJ. 1982. The high cost of information in post-World War II evolutionary biology: ergonomics, semiotics, and the sociobiology of communication systems. Philos Forum. 13(2-3):244–278.

In-text reference:
(Haraway 1982)

Citing a Journal Article (Electronic)

End Reference:
Pound P, Bracken MB. 2014. Is animal research sufficiently evidence based to be a cornerstone of biomedical research? BMJ [Internet]. [cited 2015 Jun 25]; 348:g3387. Available from doi: 10.1136/bmj.g3387

In-text reference:
(Pound and Bracken 2014)

Citing a Book

End Reference:
Morrison J, Geraghty P, Crowl L, editors. 1994. Science of Pacific Island peoples. Vol. 1, Ocean and coastal studies. Suva: Institute of Pacific Studies.

In-text reference:
(Morrison et al. 1994)

Citing a Chapter of a Book

End Reference:
de Silva K. 2009. Ka Mākālei a Kawainui. In: Kailua Historical Society. Kailua: in the wisps of the Malanai breeze. Kailua (Oʻahu): Kailua Historical Society. p. 50-53, 133-137, 161-165, 261-265.

In-text reference:
(de Silva 2009)

Citing a Dissertation

End Reference:
Perez K 3rd. 2013. Ecological evaluation of coral reef resources at Kahaluʻu bay, Hawaiʻi. [dissertation]. [Honolulu]: University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa.

In-text reference:
(Perez 2013)

[CSE] Council of Science Editors, Style Manual Committee. 2006. Scientific style and format: the CSE manual for authors, editors, and publishers. 7th ed. Reston (VA): Council of Science Editors. Chapter 29, References; p. 490-575.

Why Cite?

Nānā i ke kumu

Citing the work that supports your research is both an ethical issue and a legal issue.

The ethics of citing is based on the scholarly tradition of giving credit for information and ideas that are not one's own. Science has a long tradition of acknowledging priority through citations. You have the ethical responsibility to cite all works that were used to support your research, to give credit to the earlier work and to provide a clear path for those who follow in your footsteps.

Or, to put it another way:

I ulu no ka lālā i ke kumu.
The branches grow because of the trunk.
Without our ancestors we would not be here.

An example of some legal aspects of citing can be found in Copyrights, Title 17 of the U.S. Code, which describes the legal protections of authors' and creators' intellectual property rights within U.S. law.

*Pukui MK. 1983. ʻŌlelo Noʻeau : Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press. [1261] p.137.

What is Plagiarism?

Plagiarism is defined as:

"The action or practice of taking someone else's work, idea, etc., and passing it off as one's own; literary theft"

"plagiarism, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, March 2015. Web. 21 May 2015.  Available from:

See the University of Hawaiʻi Student Conduct Code for more information.

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