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Astronomy & Astrophysics: Organizing and Citing

Resources for finding astronomy and astrophysics literature, information, and data

Using Bibliographic Management Tools to Organize

Open Source / Free Tools

Style Guides

There are many different citation styles that are used for research papers. Ask your professor if there is a style that they prefer. Whichever style you choose, apply it consistently throughout your paper.

Citation Examples

Citation examples based on the References chapter from the 7th Edition of Scientific Style and Format (CSE 2006).

Citing a Journal Article (Print)

End Reference:
Klee GA. 1976. Traditional time reckoning and resource utilization. Micronesica. 12(2):211-246.

In-text reference:
(Klee 1976)

Citing a Journal Article (Electronic)

End Reference:
Henry T. 1907. Tahitian astronomy. J Polyn Soc [Internet]. [cited 2015 Jul 30]; 16(2):101-104. Available from

In-text reference:
(Henry 1907)

Citing a Book

End Reference:
Fort C. 1941. The Books of Charles Fort. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

In-text reference:
(Fort 1941)

Citing a Chapter of a Book

End Reference:
Peralto LN. 2014. Mauna a Wākea: hānau ka mauna, the piko of our ea. In: Goodyear-Kaʻōpua N, Hussey I, Wright EK, editors. A nation rising: Hawaiian movements for life, land, and sovereignty. Durham: Duke University Press. p.232-243.

In-text reference:
(Peralto 2014)

Citing a Dissertation

End Reference:
McDougall BN. 2011. 'O ka lipo o ka lā, 'o ka lipo o ka pō: cosmogonic kaona in contemporary Kanaka Maoli literature. [dissertation]. [Honolulu]: University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa.

In-text reference:
(McDougall 2011)

[CSE] Council of Science Editors, Style Manual Committee. 2006. Scientific style and format: the CSE manual for authors, editors, and publishers. 7th ed. Reston (VA): Council of Science Editors. Chapter 29, References; p. 490-575.

Why Cite?

Nānā i ke kumu

Citing the work that supports your research is both an ethical issue and a legal issue.

The ethics of citing is based on the scholarly tradition of giving credit for information and ideas that are not one's own. Science has a long tradition of acknowledging priority through citations. You have the ethical responsibility to cite all works that were used to support your research, to give credit to the earlier work and to provide a clear path for those who follow in your footsteps.

Or, to put it another way:

I ulu no ka lālā i ke kumu.
The branches grow because of the trunk.
Without our ancestors we would not be here.

An example of some legal aspects of citing can be found in Copyrights, Title 17 of the U.S. Code, which describes the legal protections of authors' and creators' intellectual property rights within U.S. law.

*Pukui MK. 1983. ʻŌlelo Noʻeau : Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press. [1261] p.137.

What is Plagiarism?

Plagiarism is defined as:

"The action or practice of taking someone else's work, idea, etc., and passing it off as one's own; literary theft"

"plagiarism, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, March 2015. Web. 21 May 2015.  Available from:

See the University of Hawaiʻi Student Conduct Code for more information.

Need More Help?

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