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Hawaiʻi - EA Hawaiian Activism Movements 1960-2010: Kānāwai


"The State reaffirms and shall protect all rights, customarily and traditionally exercised for subsistence, cultural and religious purposes and possessed by ahupua‘a tenants who are descendants of native Hawaiians who inhabited the Hawaiian Islands prior to 1778, subject to the right of the State to regulate such rights."

- Article XII, Section 7 of the Hawaii State Constitution

Akaka Bill 2009

Rice vs Cayetano 1996


Superferry 2007

Quote Citation

McGregor, Davianna Pomaika'I. "An Introduction to the Hoa'aina and Their Rights." (1996) 1.