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Hawaiʻi - EA Hawaiian Activism Movements 1960-2010: Home

Ua mau ke EA o ka ʻāina i ka pono 


Ea; 1. n. Sovereignty, rule, independence. 

       2. n. Life, air, breath.

       3. vi. To rise, go up, raise, become erect.

This research guide covers Hawaiian activism through movements across the pae ʻāina from 1960-2010, all in which define ea which furthermore defines how the modern Hawaiian in Hawaiʻi lives today. These critical moments that are covered all contribute to the quest for ea with every conscious kanaka awakened in these moments of history. This guide includes both battles that native Hawaiians have won and lost, and even some that are ongoing, however in each struggle our lāhui Hawaiʻi has come together to be a force against colonial institutions and a force that contributes to the complexities of ea

This guide is not comprehensive of every single movement, struggle, and aloha ʻāina in Hawaiʻi since 1960, however it does hope to be a starting point for research about the different types of sovereignties that kānaka Hawaiʻi have and continue to exercise. These historical events have shaped the current political climate for the Hawaiian identity and has created leaders of the lāhui Hawaiʻi that have paved the way for the current and future generations of aloha ʻāina. 

Search Strategies

The tabs located at the top of this page are the categories of Hawaiian social movements that shape and are shaped by moves towards ea. Because this is not a comprehensive research guide, you can further your research by using the library’s discovery layer called OneSearch (main search bar on library homepage). This is an umbrella search that looks for materials on our library shelves and in many databases we may or may not subscribe to. To help you in your search, use the timeline of highlighted Hawaiian movements, highlighted organizations, and highlighted aloha ʻāina as keywords to find additional sources for your research. 

Most of the titles in this research guide can be found physically at UHM's Hawaiian Collection and online either as a freely available resource or for UHM patrons only. The Hawaiian Collection is housed on the fifth floor of Hamilton Library. If you have any questions, concerns, or need any kōkua, email Please note, our library still has limited services due to COVID-19. Please see updates here.

As you are searching, please keep in mind of these strategies; 

  • Evaluate each collection of items to become more aware of the type of materials, scope, and purpose 
  • Use quotations to search for phrases: "aloha ʻāina" vs. aloha ʻāina
  • Use * to truncate searches: hawaii* searches for hawaii, hawaiian, hawaiians
  • Use filters (e.g. date, type, subject) to narrow search results
  • Use the subject headings of any titles you are interested in to locate more relevant titles 
  • Be aware of the uses of Hawaiian diacritics ie. kahakō and ʻokina. It is suggested that you do searches with both ʻokina/kahakō and without


Highlighted Organizations

  • Save Our Surf
  • Native Hawaiian Legal Council
  • Protect Kahoʻolawe ʻOhana
  • Hui Mālama Makua
  • Pele Defense Fund
  • Hui Alaloa
  • Hui Malama I Na Kupuna O Hawai`i Nei
  • Kōkua Hawaii
  • The ALOHA Association
  • Ka Paakai o ka Aina
  • Ke ʻAupuni Lōkahi
  • Ka 'Ohana O Ka Lae
  • Free Association
  • Nā Moku Aupuni o Koʻolau Hui
  • UH Peace Crew
  • Nā Maka o Ka ʻĀina
  • Ka Lāhui Hawaiʻi
  • Makeʻe Pono Lāhui Hawaiʻi

Highlighted Aloha ʻĀina

  • George Helm
  • Kimo Mitchell
  • Moani Akaka
  • Walter Ritte
  • Loretta Ritte
  • Lilikalā Kameʻeleihiwa
  • Haunani Kay-Trask
  • Mililani Trask
  • Kanalu Young
  • Kaleikoa Kāʻeo
  • Bumpy Kanahele
  • Kekailoa Perry
  • Skippy Ioane
  • Halealoha Ayau
  • Maxine Kahāʻulelio
  • Kekuni Blaisdell
  • John Osorio
  • Davianna Mcgregor
  • Emmett Aluli
  • Frenchy Desoto
  • Joyce Kainoa
  • Marion Kelly
  • John Kelly
  • George Kanahele
  • Pualani Kanakaʻole Kanahele
  • Edward Kanahele
  • Noenoe Silva
  • Ipo Nihipali
  • Terrilee Napua Kekoʻolani

Background Texts


Created by Hinaikawaihiʻilei Keala

Spring 2021

The creation of this research guide was in fulfillment of an internship under the LIS 690 course with UH Mānoa's Hawaiian Collection. Hina is a double masters student in Library and Information Sciences and Hawaiian Studies.

Greevy, Ed. "People, Not Profits - Huli." 31 March 1971.

Marchers protest Kalama Valley evictions and threats to surf sites at this joint Save Our Surf (SOS)/Kōkua Hawaiʻi demonstration at the state capitol. Kōkua Hawaiʻi is the name the Kalama Valley eviction protesters gave to their organization.