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Philippines: HIST 296 ("WWII and Its Legacies in Asia/Pacific")

The Philippine Decolonization as an Anomaly


            On December 8, 1941, Japan launched an attack on Commonwealth of the Philippines, ten hours after their attack on Pearl Harbor. The Philippines at this time was a semi-independent commonwealth government under the colonial rule of the United States of America. Filipino and American soldiers were defeated a the Battle of Bataan and the Battle of Corregidor in April 1942. The Japanese occupation of the Philippines occurred between 1942 and 1945 during WWII. Filipinos staged guerrilla resistance against the Japanese until 1945. The Philippines was liberated from Japanese control by Allied forces in 1944. The Philippines was granted full independence by the United States in 1946. 





  1. Lear, E. N. (1961). The Japanese occupation of the Philippines, Leyte, 1941-1945. Southeast Asia Program, Dept. of Far Eastern Studies, Cornell University. Location: Hamilton Asia DS684.4 .L4 

  2. Salazar, G. P., Reyes, F. R., & Nuval, L. Q. (1993). World War II in the Philippines. Veterans Federation of the Philippines. Hamilton Asia D802.P5 U713


  3. Horner, L. (1973). Japanese military administration in Malaya and the Philippines. University of Arizona. Location: Hamilton Asia (Library Use Only) MICROFILM S10774 

  4. Santos, A. L., & Constantino, R. (1992). Under Japanese rule : memories and reflections. Foundation for Nationalist Studies, Inc. and BYSCH, Tokyo. Hamilton Asia DS686.4 .U53 1992

  5. Ikehata, S., & Jose, R. T. (1999). The Philippines under Japan: occupation policy and reaction. Ateneo de Manila University Press. Hamilton Asia DS686.4 .N55613 1999 

  6. Ikehata, S., & Sta. Romana, E. R. (1991). The Japanese military administration in the Philippines and the tragedy of General Artemio Ricarte. Dept. of Japanese Studies, National University of Singapore. Hamilton Asia DS686.4 .I34 1991

  7. Japanese occupation papers in the U.P. collection. (1945). [University of the Philippines Library]. Location: Hamilton Asia Reference (Library Use Only) DS686.4 .U55 1945 

  8. Jose, R. T., & Yu-Jose, L. N. (1997). The Japanese occupation of the Philippines : a pictorial history (First edition.). Ayala Foundation, Inc. Hamilton Asia DS686.4 .J67 1997 

  9. It took four years for the rising sun to set, 1941-1945: recollections of an unforgettable ordeal. (2001). De La Salle University Press. Hamilton Asia DS686.4 .I8 2001 

  10. Foronda, M. A. (1975). Cultural life in the Philippines during the Japanese occupation, 1942-1945. Philippine National Historical Society. Location:  Hamilton Asia DS686.4 .F67

  11. Firth, R. H. (1962). Why the Philippines fell: the Japanese invasion 1941-1942. Location: Hamilton Asia DS686.4 .F47 



Apr 9, 1942 – Apr 17, 1942

           During World War II, on April 9, 1942, 75,000 United States soldiers and Filipino soldiers surrendered to Japanese forces after months of battling in extreme-climate conditions. They were forced to march 80 miles across the Bataan Peninsula. Approximately 10,000 soldiers died (1,000 Americans and 9,000 Filipinos).





            Local resistance to colonialism has a long history in Southeast Asia. There were many rebellions that drew on religion and traditional ideas of power to express their opposition to the outsiders. 

           These rebellions continued during the Japanese Occupation. In the Philippines there was an extensive Philippine resistance movement, which opposed the Japanese and their collaborators with active underground and guerrilla activity that increased over the years.


  1. Uriarte, H. de. (1962). A Basque among the guerrillas of Negros. (1st ed.). Editor of Civismo weekly. Location: Hamilton Asia D802.P5 U713

  2. Javellana, D. C. (2003). Bolomen. InterFormat AV Manila. Location: Hamilton Asia D802.P5 J38 2003 

  3. Jamboy, E. M. (Evelyn M., Lacar, L. Q., & Puno, G. T. (1985). The resistance movement in Lanao 1942-1945. Coordination Center for Research and Development, MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology. Hamilton Asia D802.P5 J3 1985

  4. Victoria, V. N. de la. (1971). A history of the resistance movement against the Japanese Imperial Forces in Negros Island, 1942-1945. University of San Carlos. Location: Hamilton Asia (Library Use Only) MICROFICHE 157

  5. Richardson, H. (1957). One-man war: the Jock McLaren story . Angus and Robertson. Location: Hamilton Pacific (Library Use Only) D767 .R53

  6. Doromal, J. D. (1952). The war in Panay; a documentary history of the resistance movement in Panay during World War II. ([1st ed.].). Diamond Historical Publications. Location: Hamilton Asia D802.P5 D67

  7. Ancheta, C. A. (1977). Triumph in the Philippines, 1941-1946: the saga of Bataan and Corregidor. National Book Store. Location: Hamilton Asia D767.4 .U55 1977 

  8. Ponan, F. Z. (1968). The history of the resistance movement in Antique during the Japanese occupation, 1942-1945. University of Santo Tomas. Location: Hamilton Asia (Library Use Only) MICROFICHE 140 

  9. Llanes, J. L. (1972). Jose L. Llanes guerrilla papers: a register. [University of the Philippines Library]. Location: Hamilton Asia Reference (Library Use Only) D802.P52 I46 1972 

  10. Peralta, L. Y. (1972). Who is who: Philippine guerrilla movement 1942-1945 ([1st ed.). Location: Hamilton Asia Reference (Library Use Only) D802.P5 P47

  11. Silliman, R. B. (1980). Pocket of resistance : guerrilla warfare in Negros Island, the Philippines . Philippine Editions. Location: Hamilton Asia D802.P5 S536

  12. Liang, S., Cai, J. H., & Sy, J. (1998). The Wha Chi memoirs. Kaisa Para sa Kaunlaran.  Location: Hamilton Asia D802.P6 L535 1998 

  13. Baclagon, U. S. (1988). Christian-Moslem guerrillas of Mindanao. Hamilton  Asia D802.P52 M56 1988 

  14. Chung, J. G. (1989). For Love of Country: Saga of Ruperto K. Kangleon and the Leyte Guerrillas (First edition.) Hamilton Asia D802.P5 C48 1989 

  15. Volckmann, R. W. (1954). We remained: three years behind the enemy lines in the Phillipines (First edition.). W. W. Norton & Company. Hamilton Asia D802.P5 V62 1954 

  16. Willoughby, C. A. (1972). The guerrilla resistance movement in the Philippines : 1941-1945 (1st ed.). Vantage Press. Hamilton Asia D802.P5 W47 

  17. Yung Li, Y. (1995). The Huaqiao warriors: Chinese resistance movement in the Philippines, 1942-45 . Hong Kong University Press. Hamilton Asia D767.4 .Y86 1995 

  18. Tuazon, R. L. (1975). The history of the resistance movement in La Union during the Japanese occupation, 1942-1945. University of Santo Tomas. Location: Hamilton  Asia (Library Use Only) MICROFICHE 418 

  19. Kerkvliet, B. J. (1972). Peasant rebellion in the Philippines: the origins and growth of the HMB. Thesis - University of Wisconsin. Location: Hamilton Asia DS686.5 .K47 

  20. Dowlen, D. D., & Kaminski, T. (2001). Enduring what cannot be endured : memoir of a woman medical aide in the Philippines in World War II. McFarland. Hamilton Asia D811.5 .D644 2001 

  21. Villamor, J. A., & Snyder, G. S. (1982). They never surrendered: a true story of resistance in World War II. Vera-Reyes. 

    Location: Hamilton Asia D802.P5 V53 1982 
  22. Ishida, J. (2001). The remains of war: apology and forgiveness. Megabooks. Hamilton Asia DS686.4 .I37 2001 


  1. Kaminski, T. (2015). Angels of the underground: The american women who resisted the japanese in the philippines in world war ii. ProQuest Ebook Central 

    Database: Proquest Ebook CentralDirect link: 
  2. Montgomery, B. (2016). Leper Spy: The Story of an Unlikely Hero of World War II. Chicago Review Press.  

    Database:  eBook Public Library Collection (EBSCOhost)Direct link: 
  3. Holmes, K. (2015). Wendell fertig and his guerrilla forces in the philippines: Fighting the japanese occupation, 1942–1945. ProQuest Ebook Central 

    Database: Proquest Ebook Central 

WAR CRIMES - Filipina Comfort Women

1.  Philippine c̀omfort women’ compensation suit : excerpts of the complaint. (1993). Task Force on Filipino Comfort Women.

Location: UH Manoa Hamilton Library Asia D810.C698 P45 1993


2. Calica, D. P., & Sancho, N. (1993). War crimes on Asian women : military sexual slavery by Japan during World War II : the case of the filipino comfort women . Task Force on Filipina Victims of Military Sexual Slavery by Japan.

Location: UH Mānoa Hamilton Library Asia HQ1757 .W28 1993a